DE ANDRADE and MACNAB - Anterior approach for cervical
DECOMPRESSION - In relation to the spine this procedure
is carried out to relieve pressure on the spinal cord
or nerve roots.
DECOMPRESSIVE LAMINECTOMY - A decompression done by
removing the lamina and spinous process.
DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION -A tremor control therapy for
patients with Parkinson's Disease or essential tremors,
who do not respond effectively to medications. It is
a surgical reversible procedure that involves implanting
a device to deliver mild electrical stimulation to block
the brain signals that tremor.
DEGENERATIVE - The lesion results from intersegmental
instability of long duration.
DEGENERATIVE DISC DISEASE - Gradual or rapid deterioration
of the chemical composition and physical properties
of the disc space.
DEGENERATIVE TENOSIS - Gradual hypertrophy of the vertebral
body margin, facet joints, and ligamentum flavum leading
DE-MINERALIZED BONE - Bone tissue which has been depleted
of its minerals; e.g., calcium and phosphorous.
DEMINERALIZED BONE MATRIX (DMB) - is a source of BMP
and is derived from pulverized bone specimens that are
demineralized with an acid solution. It is used as a
bone grafting material, but DMB has produced disappointing
results in clinical studies, probably due to low concentrations
of BMP that can also vary from batch to batch.
DENDRITE - A nerve cell process that transmits impulses
toward the cell body.
DEPRESSED SKULL FRACTURE - A break in the bones of
the head in which some bone is pushed inward, possibly
pushing on or cutting into the brain.
DERMATOME - Refers to the distribution of sensory nerves
near the skin that are responsible for pain, tingling,
and other sensations (or lack of).
DIABETES INSIPIDUS - Excretion of large amounts of
urine of low specific gravity. The inability to concentrate
DIAPHRAGM - The muscle between the abdomen and thorax;
main muscle of normal breathing.
DIASTEMATOMYELIA - Congenital defect associated with
spina bifida in which the spinal cord is split in half
by bony spicules or fibrous bands, each half being surrounded
by a dural sac.
DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY - Damage to the axons of many
nerve cells that lie in different parts of the brain.
DIFFUSE BRAIN INJURY - Damage to the brain that can
affect many parts of the brain, often in a subtle fashion;
examples include diffuse axonal injury and inadequate
DIPHENYLHYDANTOIN - Dilantin; a medication used to
DIPLOPIA - Double vision, due usually to weakness or
paralysis of one or more of the extra-ocular muscles.
DISC - The intervertebral disc - cartilaginous cushion
found between the vertebrae of the spinal column. It
may bulge beyond the vertebral body and compress the
nearby nerve root, causing pain. The terms "slipped
disc", "ruptured disc" and "herniated
disc" are often used interchangeably even though
there are subtle differences.
DISC DEGENERATION - The loss of the structural and
functional integrity of the disc.
DISCECTOMY - Surgical removal of part or all of an
intervertebral disc material placing pressure on neural
DISCITIS - Nonbacterial inflammation of an intervertebral
disc or disc space.
DISC SPACE INFECTION - Infection in the space normally
occupied by an intervertebral disc.
DISKOGRAM - The graphic record, usually radiographic,
DISKOGRAPHY - Radiographic demonstration of intervertebral
disc by injection of contrast media into the nucleus
of the pulposus.
DISLOCATION - Displacement of an organ or any part;
specifically disturbance or disarrangement of the normal
relation of the bones entering the formation of a joint.
DISTAL - Situated away from the center of the body.
DOME - The round balloon like portion of the aneurysm
which usually arises from the artery from a smaller
portion called the neck of the aneurysm.
DOPPLER - A non-invasive study which uses sound waves
to show the flow in a blood vessel and can be used to
determine the degree of narrowing (percent stenosis)
of the vessel. A wand is placed on the skin over the
vessel to be imaged. This study has no risks and is
DORSAL COLUMN - The main, normal sensory tract to the
DORSAL LATERAL COLUMN - The main tract of position
and tone to the brain.
DORSOLATERAL - An approach to the dorsal spine by costotransversectomy,
usually done for fractures and other affections of the
DOUBLE CURVE - Two lateral curves in a single spine;
double major curve is two lateral curves of equal magnitude,
and double thoracic curve is two thoracic curves.
DUNN - For myelomeningocele spinal deformity; use of
contouring L-rod for posterior stabilization.
DURA - Dura mater.
DURAL - Pertaining to the dura.
DURA MATER - A tough fibrous membrane which covers
the brain and spinal cord, but is separated from them
by a small space.
DWYER - Anteriorly placed screws and band device for
correction of spinal deformities.
DWYER-HARTSILL - For failed lumbar degenerative disc
disease; pedicle screws wired to a rectangular frame
along with posterolateral fusion.
DYSESTHESIA - A condition in which a disagreeable sensation
is produced by ordinary touch, temperature or movement.
DYSPHASIA - Difficulty in the use of language due to
a brain lesion without mental impairment.
DYSPLASTIC - Congenital abnormalities of the arch of
the sacrum or the arch of L-5 that permit the slipping
DYSRAPHISM - Any failure of closure of the primary
neural tube. This general category would include the
DYSTONIA MUSCULORM DEFORMANS - An affliction occurring
especially in children, marked by muscular contractions
producing distortions of the spin and hips.
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