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MACCARTHY PROCEDURE - For sacral tumor; a method of excision of the sacrum.

MAGERL - Transarticular facet screw fusion for posterior C-1 on C-2 with the use of bilateral screws directed from inferior posterior lateral mass to anterior superior C-1.

MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHY (MRA) - A non-invasive study which is conducted in a Magnetic Resonance Imager (MRI). The magnetic images are assembled by a computer to provide an image of the arteries in the head and neck. No contrast material is needed, but some patients may experience claustrophobia in the imager.

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) - Diagnostic test that produces three-dimensional images of body structures using powerful magnets and computer technology rather than x-rays.

MALIGNANT - resistant to treatment; occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal; tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.

MARGINAL OSTEOPHYTES - Excess bone formation at the margin of the vertebral body; spondylosis.

MARIE-STRÜMPELL d - Inflammation of the spine, occurring as a rheumatoid-tyoe disease in children.

MASSAGE - A method of manipulation of the body by rubbing, pinching, kneading, tapping, etc.

MCAFFEE - Anterior retropharyngeal approach to upper cervical spine; often used for fusion, allowing excision of tumor.

MEDIAN NERVE - The nerve formed from the brachial plexus that supplies muscles in the anterior forearm and thumb, as well as, sensation of the hand. It may be compressed or trapped at the wrist in carpal tunnel syndrome.

MEDIAL - Situated closer to the midline of the body.

MEDICAL DEVICE REPORT (MDR) - The required reporting of' medical device complaints involving a patient death, serious injury, or device malfunction.

MEDICATION - The act of medicating. A medical substance, or medicament.

MEDULLA OBLONGATA - The lower portion of the brain stem.

MEDULLOBLASTOMA - Tumor composed of medulloblasts which are cells which develop in the roof of the fourth ventricle (medullary velum).

MENINGES - The three membranes covering the spinal cord and brain termed dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater.

MENINGIOMA - A firm, often vascular, tumor arising from the coverings of the brain. Does not recur if totally removed.

MENINGISMUS - Apparent irritation of brain or spinal cord in which symptoms simulate meningitis but in which no actual inflammation of the membranes is present; meningism.

MENINGITIS - An infection or inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses.

MENINGOCELE - A protrusion of the coverings of the spinal cord or brain through a defect in the skull or vertebral column. May be congenital or acquired.

MENINGOENCEPHALITIS - An inflammation or infection of the brain and spinal cord and their membranes.

MENINGOENCEPHALOCELE - A protrusion of both the meninges and brain tissue through a skull defect

MENINGOMYELITIS - Inflammation of spinal cord, its enveloping arachnoid and pia mater, and sometimes the dura mater..

MEYER - For C-1 to C-2 instability, posterior fusion using vertical strut grafts and wires.

MODIFIED FRANKEL CLASSIFICATION - Scale for spinal cord damage due to any cause.

MORBIDITY the frequency of the appearance of complications following a surgical procedure or the other treatment.

MRA - Magnetic Resonance Angiography. A non-invasive study which is conducted in a Magnetic Resonance Imager (MRI). The magnetic images are assembled by a computer to provide an image of the arteries in the head and neck. No contrast material is needed, but some patients may experience claustrophobia in the imager.

MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Scanning technique for views of the brain or spinal cord. No radiation is involved, but rather pulsed magnetic waves are used to delineate the structures within the brain.

MESENCEPHALIC - Relating to that part of the brain stem known as the mesencephalon.

MINIMAL ACCESS DISCECTOMY - an operation performed on the upper spine to relieve pressure on one or more nerve roots.

Minimally Invasive Lumbar Laminectomy/Discectomy - an operation performed on the lower spine to relieve pressure on one or more nerve roots. The term is derived from the words lumbar (low back), and discectomy (remove a portion of the intervertebral disc).

MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY - Surgery requiring small incision(s), usually performed with endoscopic visualization.

MUSCULATURE - The arrangement of the muscles in a part or in the body as a whole.

MUSCULOSKELETAL INJURIES - injuries affecting the muscles.

MYALGIA - Muscular pain.

MYELALGIA - Pain in the spinal cord.

MYELANALOSIS - Wasting of spinal marrow, tabes dorsalis.

MYELAPOPLEXY - Loss of nerve strength caused by some disorder of the spinal cord.

MYELASTHENIA - Loss of nerve strength caused by some disorder of the spinal cord.

MYELATELIA - Imperfect development of the spinal cord.

MYELATROPHY - Atrophy (wasting away) of spinal cord because of lack of nutrition, causing it to diminish in size.

MYELAUXE - Abnormal increase in size of spinal cord.

MYELETEROSIS - Abnormal alteration of the spinal cord.

MYELIN - The fat-like substance which surrounds the axon nerve fibers and forms an insulating material.

MYELOCELE - Protrusion of the spinal cord in spina bifida. Herniation and protrusion of substance of spinal cord through defect in the bony spinal canal.

MYELOCYSTOCELE - Cystic protrusion of substance of the spinal cord through a defect in the bony spinal canal.

MYELOCYSTOMENINGOCELE - Cystic protrusion of substance of the spinal cord, with meninges, through a defect in the spinal canal.

MYELODYIASTASIS - Separation of the spinal cord.

MYELODYSPLASIA - Defective development of any part of spinal cord.

MYELOENCEPHALITIS - Inflammation of the spinal cord and brain; myelencephalitis.

MYELOGRAM - An x-ray of the spinal canal following injection of a contrast material into the surrounding cerebrospinal fluid spaces.

MYELOGRAPHY - Radiography of the spinal cord and nerve roots after the injection of a contrast medium into the spinal subarachnoid space.

MYELOMALACIA - Softening of the spinal cord.

MYELOMENINGITIS - Inflammation of the spinal cord and meninges (spinal membranes).

MYELOMENINGOCELE - A protrusion of the spinal cord and its coverings through a defect in the vertebral column. Herniation of cord and meninges through a defect in the vertebral column.

MYELONEURITIS - Inflammation of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves.

MYELOPARALYSIS - Spinal paralysis.

MYELOPATHY - Any functional or pathologic disturbance in the spinal cord.

MYELOPHTHISIS - Wasting of the spinal cord; reduction of cell-forming function of bone marrow.

MYELOPLEGIA - Spinal paralysis.

MYELORADICULITIS - Inflammation of spinal cord and nerve roots.

MYELORADICULOPATHY - Disease of spinal cord and spinal nerve roots.

MYELORRHAGIA - Spinal hemorrhage.

MYELOSCELEROSIS - Hardening of the spinal cord.

MYELOSYPHILIS - Syphilis of the spinal cord.

MYELOTOMY - A procedure for severing tracts in the spinal cord.

MYOPATHY - Any disease of muscle.

MYOSITIS - Inflammation of the muscle.

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