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RACHIALGIA - Pain in the vertebral column.

RACHICENTESIS - Lumbar puncture for examination of the spinal fluid; rachiocentesis.

RACHIOCAMPSIS - Curvature of the spine.

RACHIOCHYSIS - Effusion of fluid within the vertebral canal.

RACHIOKYPHOSIS - Humpbacked curvature of spine; kyphosis.

RACHIOMYELITIS - Inflammation of the spinal cord.

RACHIOPARALYSIS - Paralysis of the spinal muscles.

RACHIOPATHY - Any disease of the spine.

RACHIOPLEGIA - Spinal paralysis.

RACHIOSCOLIOSIS - Lateral curvature of the spine.

RACHIOTOMY - Incision into a vertebral canal for exploration.

RACHISAGRA - Pain or gout in the spine.

RACHISCHISIS - Abnormal congenital opening of the vertebral column.

RACHITOMY - Surgical or anatomic opening of the vertebral canal.

RADICULECTOMY - Excision of a rootlet or resection of spinal nerve roots.

RADICULOPATHY - Disease of the nerve roots in or near the spinal canal as a result of direct pressure from a disc, or inflammation of the nerve roots due to disc or spinal joint disease.

RADIATION ONCOLOGIST - A medical doctor who has received advanced training in the treatment of persons receiving x-ray treatment for an illness.

RADIATION PHYSICIST - A person having a PhD degree who is trained in the science dealing with the properties, changes and interactions of continuous energy.

RADICLE - A rootlet or structure resembling one, a minute veinlet joining with others to form a vein.

RADICULAR - Relating to the radicle.

RADIOLOGIST - A medical doctor who has received specialized training in interpreting x-rays, CTs, MRIs and performing angiography.

RADIOTHERAPY - Treatment of a lesion with radiation.

RADIUS - The lateral and shorter of the two bones of the foreman.

RECOMBINANT HUMAN PROTEINS proteins developed by isolating a human protein and using recombinant DNA technology to produce genetically engineered proteins that act like natural proteins.

REFERRED PAIN - Sclerotomic in distribution and felt distant from its origin (e.g., bursitis in the shoulder produces pain in the lateral arm, and sciatic-like leg pain can be referred from the lower-back area).

REFLEX - An involuntary reaction in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the nervous centers in the brain or spinal cord.

RESECTION - The surgical removal of part of a structure, such as bone.

RESORPTION - The removal of bone tissue by normal physiological process or as part of a pathological process such as an infection.

RETROLISTHESIS - Posterior displacement of the vertebra on the one below.

REVERSAL of CERVICAL LORDOSIS - Change in the normal curvature of the cervical spine as seen on lateral radiograph. This is usually a straightening of the normal lordotic curve or an actual reversal and is most commonly caused by muscle spasm, indicating cervical disc abnormality.

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS - generalized inflammatory joint disease.

RHIZOTOMY - Division of the roots of the spinal nerves.

RISSER - For scoliosis deformity; particular attention to fusion of facet joints and use of cast stabilization.

ROAF, KIRKALDY-WILLIS, and CATTERO - Drainage of thoracic spinal abscess through dorsolateral approach.

ROBINSON and RILEY - An extensive anterior approach for fusion of C-1 to C-3 or lower.

ROD - In spinal applications, a slender, metal implant which is used to immobilize and alien the spine.

ROGER FUSION - Posterior cervical using iliac cortical and cancellous grafts.

ROGOZINSKI - A combined anteroposterior device used in correction of spinal deformities.

ROOT - The primary or beginning point of any part, as of a nerve at its origin from the brainstem or spinal cord.

ROOT SLEEVE FIBROSIS - Scar tissue surrounding a nerve in the spinal canal or neural foramen; epineural fibrosis. If it is within the nerve, it is called intraneural fibrosis.

ROUNDIND of the CRANIAL BORDER - Relationship of the height to the width of the rounded portion of the superior sacrum.

ROY-CAMILLE - For stabilization between the skull and C-2; posterior bone graft with wire and parallel vertical screw plate fixation from occiput to C-3. Posterior pedicle screw and plate device for spinal stabilization.

RUDIMENTARY RIBS - Nubbins of ribs seen below the level where the last rib normally occurs.

RUPTURED DISC - See Herniated Disc.

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