SACCULAR ANEURYSM - A balloon-like
outpouching of a vessel (the more common type of aneurysm).
SACRAL - Five fused segments of the lower spine, below
the end of the spinal column, that connect to the pelvis
and have four formina on each side.
SACRAL AGENESIS - Absence, failure of formation, or
imperfect development of the lower portions of the spinal
column and pelvis.
SACRAL ALA - Lateral portions of the sacral bone.
SACRAL CYST - Abnormality in the spinal fluid sac in
SACRALGIA - Pain in the sacrum.
SACRALIZATION - Fusion of L-5 to the first segment
of the sacrum, so that the sacrum consists of six segments;
with this abnormality, it is called BERTOLOTTI syndrome.
SACRALIZED TRANSVERSE PROCES - One or both of the lumbar
spinous transverse processes abnormally joining with
the sacrum; sacralization.
SACRODYNIA - Pain perceived to be in the area of the
sacrum but may originate elsewhere; referred pain.
SACROILITIS - Inflammation of the sacroiliac joint.
A very painful, often one-sided sacral area pain that
follows delivery, is not due to sepsis, and will subside
gradually and completely; acute postpardum sacroilitis.
SACRUM - A part of the spine that is also part of the
pelvis. It articulates with the ilia at the sacroiliac
joints and articulates with the lumbar spine at the
lumbosacral joint. The sacrum consists of five fused
vertebrae that have no intervertebral discs.
SCALENUS - The deep lateral muscles of the anterior
neck, including anterior scalene m. (scalenus anticus),
middle scalene m. (scalenus medius), and posterior scalene
m. (scalenus posticus).
SCAPULA - A large triangular flattened bone lying over
the ribs, posteriorly on either side.
SCHEUERMANN'S DISEASE - Inflammation of the anterior
cartilage of the bodies of the lower thoracic and upper
segments, causing pain in some older, growing children.
There is more than 5 degrees of wedging of at least
three adjacent vertebrae as seen on radiographs.
SCHMORL NODES - Developmental change resulting in inferior
or superior extension of the intervertebral disc into
the vertebral bodies.
SCHOLLNER COSTOPLASTY - For rib deformity or scoliosis;
multiple rib partial excisions.
SCIATICA - A lay term indicating pain along the course
of a sciatic nerve, especially noted in the back of
the thigh and below the knee. Pain radiating down the
sciatic nerve into the posterior thigh and leg; can
be caused by irritation of a nerve anywhere from the
back to the thigh.
SCOLIORACHITIS - Disease of the spine caused by rickets;
abnormal bone mineralization.
SCOLIOSIS - Lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine.
SCOTOMA - An area of decreased vision surrounded by
an area of less depressed or normal vision.
SCOTT - Use of cross-wire fixation transverse process
to inferior pedicle in stabilization of spondylolysis
SEDDON - Drainage of thoracic spinal abscess through
anterolateral approach with partial resection of rib.
SEGMENTAL INSTABILITY - Abnormal response to applied
loads characterized by motion in the motor segment beyond
SEPSIS - A state of infection of tissue due to disease-producing
bacteria or toxins.
SEPTUM - A thin wall dividing two cavities or masses
of softer tissue.
SEQUESTRATION - Displaced material escapes as free
fragment(s), which may migrate elsewhere.
SHUNT - A tube or device implanted in the body (usually
made of Silastic) to redivert excess CSF away from the
brain to another place in the body.
SIMMONS - Use of keystoned-shaped graft in anterior
fusion. For cervical spinal kyphosis; a posterior osteotomy.
SKELETON - The rigid framework of bones that gives
form to the body, protects and supports the soft organs
and tissues, and provides attachments for muscles.
SOUTHWICK - A posterior fusion with wire attaching
bone graft to the facet joints.
SPEED (KELLOGG SPEED) - For spondylolisthesis spine
fusion and anterior interbody fusion by using tibial
SPETZLER - Approach to anterior C-1 to C-3 by using
a transoral approach for fusion following excision of
SPINA BIFIDA - A congenital defect of the spine marked
by the absence of a portion of the spine.
SPINAL ACCESSORY NERVE (eleventh cranial) - The nerve
from the brainstem that supplies the sternocleidomastoid
SPINAL CANAL - The bony channel that is formed by the
intravertebral foramen of the vertebrae and in which
contains the spinal cord and nerve roots. The space
between the vertebral body anteriorly and the lamina
and spinal process posteriorly.
SPINAL COLUMN - See Spine.
SPINAL CORD - The longitudinal cord of nerve tissue
that is enclosed in the spinal canal. It serves not
only as a pathway for nervous impulses to and from the
brain, but as a center for carrying out and coordinating
many reflex actions independently of the brain.
SPINAL DISC - See Disc (Intervertebral).
SPINAL FUSION - Operative method of strengthening and
limiting motion of the spinal column. Can be performed
with a variety of metal instruments and bone grafts,
or bone grafts alone.
SPINAL STENOSIS - General term denoting narrowing of
the spinal canal in the lumbar area leading to nerve
root compromise; term often used for developmental abnormality
that leaves a narrow, bony canal. There are four subgroups
of this condition: achondroplastic stenosis, constitutional
stenosis, degenerative stenosis, and combined stenosis.
SPINAL THALAMIC TRACT - The main tract of pain to the
SPINE - The flexible bone column extending from the
base of the skull to the tailbone. It is made up of
33 bones, known as vertebrae. The first 24 vertebrae
are separated by discs known as intervertebral discs,
and bound together by ligaments and muscles. Five vertebrae
are fused together to form the sacrum and 4 vertebrae
are fused together to form the coccyx. The spine is
also referred to as the vertebral column, spinal column,
SPINOUS PROCESS - The portion of the vertebrae that
protrudes posteriorly from the spinal column. The spinous
processes create the "bumps" felt on the midline
of the back. The most posterior extension of the spine
arising from the laminae.
SPONDYLALGIA - Pain in vertebra(e).
SPONDYLARTHRITIS - Arthritis of the spine.
SPONDYLARTHROCACE - Tuberculosis of the spine; spondylocace.
SPONDYLEXARTHROSIS - Dislocation of a vertebra.
SPONDYLITIS - Inflammation of vertebrae, including
types such as ankylosing, rheumatoid, traumatic, spondylitis
deformans, Kümmel, and Marie-Strümpell d.
SPONDYLIZEMA - Depression or downward displacement
of a vertebra, with destruction or softening of one
SPONDYLODYNIA - Pain in vertebra(e).
SPONDYLOEPIPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA - Disorder of growth affecting
both the spine and the ends of long bones.
SPONDYLOLISTHESIS - A defect in the construct of bone
between the superior and inferior facets with varying
degrees of displacement so the vertebra with the defect
and the spine above that vertebra are displaced forward
in relationship to the vertebrae below. It Is usually
due to a developmental defect or the result of a fracture.
SPONDYLOLYSIS - Displacement of one vertebrae over
another with fracture of a posterior portion of the
vertebra. A defect in the neural arch between the superior
and inferior facets of vertebrae without separation
at the defect and therefore no displacement of the vertebrae.
It may be unilateral or bilateral and is usually due
to a developmental defect but may be secondary to a
SPONDYLOMALACIA - Softening of vertebrae; Kümmell
SPONDYLOPATHY - Any vertebral disorder.
SPONDYLOPYOSIS - Infection in vertebra(e).
SPONDYLOSCHISIS - Congenital fissure (splitting) of
SPONDYLOSIS - Ankylosis of the vertebra; often applied
nonspecifically to any lesion of the spine of a degenerative
nature. Bony replacement of ligaments around the disc
spaces of the spine, associated with decreased mobility
and eventual fusion; marginal osteophyte.
SPONDYLOSYNDESIS - Surgical immobilization or ankylosis
by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone
graft in cases of tuberculosis of the spine; spondylodesis,
SPONDYLOTOMY - Incision into a vertebra or vertebral
SPRAIN - An injury to a ligament when the joint is
carried through a range of motion greater than normal,
but without dislocation or fracture.
STAINLESS STEEL - Iron-based metal containing chromium
that is highly resistant to stain, rust, and corrosion.
Certain grades of stainless steel are commonly used
to make surgical implants and instruments.
STEFFEE PLATE - For posterolateral fusion fixation;
plate and screw device.
STENOSIS - Reduction in the diameter of the spinal
canal due to new bone formation which may result in
pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
STEREOTACTIC - Originated from the Greek words stereo
meaning three dimensional and tactos meaning touched
and relating to stereotaxy.
STEREOTAXY - A precise method of destroying deep-seated
brain structures located by use of three dimension coordinates.
STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY - The precise delivery of
radiation to a preselected stereotactically localized
STERILE - Free from living organisms. Relating to or
characterized by sterility.
STERILITY - In general, the incapability of fertilization
STERILIZATION - The method used to render a material
free from living organisms. Usual methods include steam
under pressure, gas, and ionizing radiation.
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID - Large externally visible muscle
of the anterior neck, enabling the head to turn to either
STERNUM - The breast bone; further divided into three
segments. manubrium: upper portion, proximal end; sternum:
main portion; xiphoid: the dagger-like tip of the sternum,
STRABISMUS - Deviation of eye movement which prevents
the two eyes from moving in a parallel fashion.
STRAIN - To injure by overuse or improper use.
STRAP MUSCLES - A general term applied to the ribbon-like
muscles in the anterior neck; they include omohyoid,
sternhyoid, sternthyroid, and thyrohyoid.
STRUCTURAL CURVE - A fixed lateral curve of the spinal
SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE - Blood in, or bleeding into,
the space under the arachnoid membrane, most commonly
from trauma or from rupture of an aneurysm.
SUBDURAL HEMATOMA - a collection of blood (clot) trapped
under the dura matter, the outermost membrane surrounding
the brain and spinal cord.
SUBLUXATION - An incomplete luxation or dislocation;
though a relationship is altered, contact between joint
SUPERIOR - Situated above or directed upward toward
the head of an individual
SURGERY - The branch of medicine concerned with the
treatment of disease, injury, and deformity by operation
or manipulation. The performance or procedures of an
SYNDROME - The aggregate of signs and symptoms associated
with any morbid process, and constitution together the
picture of the disease.
SYRINGOMYELIA - A fluid filled cavity in the spinal
cord. Usually involving upper segments initially and
involving the shoulder muscles.
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