TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT SYNDROME
- Complex of symptoms often seen in cervical sprain
conditions. Symptoms include clicking in the jaw on
opening and closing the mouth, soreness in the jaw,
headaches, buzzing sounds, changes in hearing, stiffness
in the neck and shoulders, dizziness, and swallowing
TENDON - The fibrous band of tissue that connects muscle
to bone. It is mainly composed of collagen.
TENDONITIS - Inflammation of a tendon.
TENSION - The act of stretching. The condition of being
stretched or tense, or a stretching or pulling force.
TENTORIUM CEREBELLI - The process of the dura matter
between the cerebrum and cerebellum supporting the occipital
TERATOMA - Tumor or growth made up of several different
types of tissue (fat, bone, muscle, skin).
TEXAS SCOTTISH RITE HOSPITAL - Instrumentation used
anteriorly and posteriorly.
THIRD PARTY PAYOR - The source of reimbursement or
payment of charges for medical services when the patient
does not make direct payment: i.e. payments made by
insurance companies, government agencies or employers.
The patient and the doctor represent the two other parties
in third party pay arrangements.
THORACIC - The chest level region of the spine that
is located between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae.
It consists of 12 vertebrae which serve as attachment
points for ribs.
THORACIC CURVE - A spinal curvature with its apex between
the second and eleventh thoracic vertebrae.
THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME - Mechanical problem related
to the exit of arteries and nerves at the base of the
neck leading down the arm, and can also involve the
vein bringing blood back from the arm.
THORACOLUMBAR CURVE - A spinal curve with its apex
at the first lumbar or twelfth thoracic curve.
THROMBUS - A blood clot attached to the wall of an
THALAMUS - Brain cells which lie in the upper part
of the brainstem.
THORAX - The chest or rib cage; also refers to the
space containing the lungs and heart. There are 12 vertebral
segments and ribs; the lower two are called floating
THYROID CARTILAGE - Widening expanses of cartilage
above the trachea, the top marks the level of C-4, the
THYROID GLAND - Near the "Adam's apple;"
responsible for secretion of hormone that is involved
in regulation of the rate of metabolism.
TIC DOULOUREUX - (See trigeminal neuralgia).
TISSUE - A collection of similar cells and the intercellular
substances surrounding them.
TITANIUM - A metallic element used to make surgical
TORTICOLLIS - A contraction, often spasmodic, of the
muscles of the neck, chiefly those supplied by the spinal
accessory nerve; the head is drawn to one side and usually
rotated so that the chin points to the other side.
TOXICOLOGY - The study of the toxic or harmful effects
of substances on the body.
TRACHEA - The windpipe.
TRACTION - The act of drawing or pulling, as by an
elastic or spring force. A pulling or dragging force
exerted on a limb in a distal direction.
TRACTION SPUR - Bony excrescence appearing on the anterolateral
surface of the vertebral body near but not at the body
margin that arises as a result of disc degeneration.
TRACTOTOMY - Surgical section of a fiber tract of the
central nervous system.
TRANQUILIZER - A drug that promotes tranquility by
calming, soothing, quieting, or pacifying without sedating
or depressant effects.
TRANSFORAMINAL LUMBAR INTERBODY FUSION (TLIF) - an
operation where the lumbar spine is approached through
an incision in the back. A portion of bone and disc
are removed from the spine and replaced with an implant
that is inserted into the disc space.
TRANSITIONAL VERTEBRA - Vertebra whose structure features
some of the characteristics of the two adjacent vertebra.
A common example is the fifth lumbar vertebra that has
partial sacral components.
TRANSPLANT - The implantation of bone tissue, as in
grafting, from one part of the body to another. Transplant
also refers to the transfer of an organ such as a kidney
or heart from one individual to another.
TRANSSPHENOIDAL APPROACH - Operative method of reaching
the pituitary gland or skull base traversing the nose
TRANSVERSE - Crosswise; lying across the long axis
of the body or of a part.
TRANSVERSE PROCESS - Bony process arising from midportion
of the spinal ring just posterior to the pedicle and
TRAUMATIC - Results from fracture in other areas of
the bony hook than in pars interarticularis.
TRIANGLES - For surgical approaches and other considerations,
the anterior half of the neck is divided into triangles-
anterior, digastric, posterior, submental, and carotid.
TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA - Paroxysmal pain in the face.
Pain may be so severe that it causes an involuntary
grimace or "tic". (Tic Douloureux).
TSULI - For severe cervical spondylosis; an expansive,
TUMOR - Any swelling or tumefaction.
TWELFTH CRANIAL NERVES - See other nerves.
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