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TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT SYNDROME - Complex of symptoms often seen in cervical sprain conditions. Symptoms include clicking in the jaw on opening and closing the mouth, soreness in the jaw, headaches, buzzing sounds, changes in hearing, stiffness in the neck and shoulders, dizziness, and swallowing disorders.

TENDON - The fibrous band of tissue that connects muscle to bone. It is mainly composed of collagen.

TENDONITIS - Inflammation of a tendon.

TENSION - The act of stretching. The condition of being stretched or tense, or a stretching or pulling force.

TENTORIUM CEREBELLI - The process of the dura matter between the cerebrum and cerebellum supporting the occipital lobes.

TERATOMA - Tumor or growth made up of several different types of tissue (fat, bone, muscle, skin).

TEXAS SCOTTISH RITE HOSPITAL - Instrumentation used anteriorly and posteriorly.

THIRD PARTY PAYOR - The source of reimbursement or payment of charges for medical services when the patient does not make direct payment: i.e. payments made by insurance companies, government agencies or employers. The patient and the doctor represent the two other parties in third party pay arrangements.

THORACIC - The chest level region of the spine that is located between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. It consists of 12 vertebrae which serve as attachment points for ribs.

THORACIC CURVE - A spinal curvature with its apex between the second and eleventh thoracic vertebrae.

THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME - Mechanical problem related to the exit of arteries and nerves at the base of the neck leading down the arm, and can also involve the vein bringing blood back from the arm.

THORACOLUMBAR CURVE - A spinal curve with its apex at the first lumbar or twelfth thoracic curve.

THROMBUS - A blood clot attached to the wall of an artery.

THALAMUS - Brain cells which lie in the upper part of the brainstem.

THORAX - The chest or rib cage; also refers to the space containing the lungs and heart. There are 12 vertebral segments and ribs; the lower two are called floating ribs.

THYROID CARTILAGE - Widening expanses of cartilage above the trachea, the top marks the level of C-4, the bottom C-5.

THYROID GLAND - Near the "Adam's apple;" responsible for secretion of hormone that is involved in regulation of the rate of metabolism.

TIC DOULOUREUX - (See trigeminal neuralgia).

TISSUE - A collection of similar cells and the intercellular substances surrounding them.

TITANIUM - A metallic element used to make surgical implants.

TORTICOLLIS - A contraction, often spasmodic, of the muscles of the neck, chiefly those supplied by the spinal accessory nerve; the head is drawn to one side and usually rotated so that the chin points to the other side.

TOXICOLOGY - The study of the toxic or harmful effects of substances on the body.

TRACHEA - The windpipe.

TRACTION - The act of drawing or pulling, as by an elastic or spring force. A pulling or dragging force exerted on a limb in a distal direction.

TRACTION SPUR - Bony excrescence appearing on the anterolateral surface of the vertebral body near but not at the body margin that arises as a result of disc degeneration.

TRACTOTOMY - Surgical section of a fiber tract of the central nervous system.

TRANQUILIZER - A drug that promotes tranquility by calming, soothing, quieting, or pacifying without sedating or depressant effects.

TRANSFORAMINAL LUMBAR INTERBODY FUSION (TLIF) - an operation where the lumbar spine is approached through an incision in the back. A portion of bone and disc are removed from the spine and replaced with an implant that is inserted into the disc space.

TRANSITIONAL VERTEBRA - Vertebra whose structure features some of the characteristics of the two adjacent vertebra. A common example is the fifth lumbar vertebra that has partial sacral components.

TRANSPLANT - The implantation of bone tissue, as in grafting, from one part of the body to another. Transplant also refers to the transfer of an organ such as a kidney or heart from one individual to another.

TRANSSPHENOIDAL APPROACH - Operative method of reaching the pituitary gland or skull base traversing the nose and sinuses.

TRANSVERSE - Crosswise; lying across the long axis of the body or of a part.

TRANSVERSE PROCESS - Bony process arising from midportion of the spinal ring just posterior to the pedicle and pars interarticulars.

TRAUMATIC - Results from fracture in other areas of the bony hook than in pars interarticularis.

TRIANGLES - For surgical approaches and other considerations, the anterior half of the neck is divided into triangles- anterior, digastric, posterior, submental, and carotid.

TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA - Paroxysmal pain in the face. Pain may be so severe that it causes an involuntary grimace or "tic". (Tic Douloureux).

TSULI - For severe cervical spondylosis; an expansive, multiple laminectomy.

TUMOR - Any swelling or tumefaction.

TWELFTH CRANIAL NERVES - See other nerves.

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